Professor/Department of Nursing, Silla University, [617-736], 140 Baegyang-daero(Blvd), 700 beon-gil(Rd), Sasang-gu, Busan, Korea.
Corresponding Author Details: Youn-Kyoung Kwag, Department of Nursing, Silla University, [617-736], 140 Baegyang-daero (Blvd), 700 beon-gil(Rd), Sasang-gu, Busan, Korea. E-mail: email@example.com
Received date: 03rd April, 2019
Accepted date: 20th September, 2019
Published date: 23rd September, 2019
Citation: Kwag YK (2019) A Study of Clinical Nurses’ perception on Nursing Students’ Character Development Level and Requirement of Character Education Virtue for Nursing Students. J Comp Nurs Res Care 4: 147.
Copyright: ©2019, This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
The purpose of that study is to investigate the virtues of personality education that current clinical nurses consider necessary for nursing education, and also confirm the current personality development level of nursing college students they evaluate. Finally 5O nurses participated in this study. According to the results of this study, clinical practitioners suggested that the most important virtue in personality education for nursing students is "sincere". Thelevel of personality development of nursing college students perceived by clinical practitioners was higher in order of "sincerity", “collaboration", "responsibility" and “abstinence", "consideration", "respect" and "compliance". And, based on the necessity of education of personality items recognized by nurse practitioners and the difference of development level of current students, the order of virtues in nurse college students' character education is "sincere". Nursing educators will need to incorporate elements of these personality education items into the curriculum and the comparative activities.
Nursing work requires nursing expertise knowledge based on evidence, skilled nursing skills, and attitudes to cope with various situations and subjects. Nursing ethics and values in nursing individuals are not formed at the moment when they reach profession. Human moral personality is possible through systematic learning as it is formed through the process of education and socialization from a young age [1,2]. In this sense, university life is a period in which identity, life and social values are established and social position is established as a preparation period for professions as well as truth inquiry and liberal education . Therefore, nursing education should be concerned with nursing students' nurse personality as well as providing nursing knowledge and skills as prospective nurses .
On the other hand, the confrontation or conflict between professional ethics and the values of life can interfere with ethical job performance and stable life as a professional. Therefore, it is necessary to have a pedagogical approach to study and guide with nursing college students how to reconcile work ethics with current values of life. In addition, as democracy and civil society develop from the social aspect, school education needs to emit members with high citizenship and morality. In Korea, democratic civil society has been developed in earnest since the 1980s, and the recognition and necessity of social justice has also been greatly enhanced recently in Korean society . Thus, in nursing education, it is necessary to reflect the changing trends such as emphasizing the elements of civic consciousness and morality in addition to occupational nursing ethics.In order to realize personality education, it is very important to recognize which personality is important. This is because personality education varies according to where personality education puts the value and importance of personality education .
Therefore we investigate the virtues of personality education that current clinical nurses consider necessary for nursing education, and also confirm the current personality development level of nursing college students they evaluate. The results of this study can be used as basic data for the development of personality education program for Korean nursing students.
Study subjects: Nurses who accepted to participate in this study among clinical nurses working in practice wards or practice units of university nursing students of S university were aimed at those who did not have difficulty to read and write.
Data collection: First, the researcher explained the purpose of this research through telephone and visit to the administrators of the institute which has been concluded as the clinical practice institution of the university nursing students of the second semester of 2016. The researchers then visited the nursing departments of the three agencies who had agreed to cooperate in collecting research data. Then, the researcher explained to the 52 nurses who accepted to participate in this study among the clinical nurses working in the practice ward or practice unit of university nursing students of S university to explain contents of anonymity, confidentiality, free participation and withdrawal of research participants. After receiving the written consent, the questionnaire was distributed and collected. We excluded two data sets from the data analysis that were not replied in the questionnaire review. As a result, 50 questionnaires were used to analyze the final data.
Study Instrument: The survey tool utilized the tools used in the study of Sung and Kim . This tool was used to measure the virtues of personality education recognized by clinical nurses and the personality development level of nursing students of S university by each virtue. This instrument is composed of 12 items for each item and is a Likert scale rated at 5 points.The reliability of the instrument in Sung and Kim's studies was .83, .91. The reliability of the instrument in this study was .89 .95. In order to confirm the priority of educational needs for personality education, the requirements of Borich (1980) were analyzed using the formula. Borich(1980)'s requirements were also analyzed using formulas to identify priorities for educational needs of personality education. According to Bae Jung-han (2003), the key of demand analysis is to investigate the difference between the desired state and the present state, seeking the optimal solution. There are a variety of ways to rationally analyze the degree of demand for educational content, but in this study we have identified educational needs through a survey using the method proposed by Borich. The requirement of Borich (1980) is the sum of the difference between the current level and the demand level, multiplied by the average of the demand level, and then divided by the total number of cases. As a result, the higher the perception of the demand level, the lower the perception of the current level, the higher the demand value.
The majority of clinical nurses participating in the study were women (90.0%) and males (10%). Their working departments were psychiatric nursing departments (58.0%) and women wards (42.0%). The staff nurse was 90%, and the other 10% were nurses or Department Managers. 36% of the participants had experience in participating in nursing education, and 64% were not. The average age was 30, the youngest nurse was 19, and the oldest nurse was 46.
The significance level of the personality education items recognized by the research participants was 4.36 ± 0.44, the lowest score was 3.17, and the highest score was 5.0. The average level of personality development of nursing college students was 3.39 ± 0.57, and the lowest score was 2.25 and the highest score was 5.0.
Among the 12 personality items in this study, the most important perceived importance of clinical practitioners was "sincerity (4.72 ± .45)" and the lowest item was "filial piety (3.84 ± .93)".
The highest evaluation of personality development among nursing students was "sincerity (3.52 ± .67)" and the lowest evaluation was "courage (3.20 ± .70)".
As a result of the Borich score test, the item with the highest educational need was "sincerity (0.96)" and the item with the lowest education need was "the filial piety (0.38)".
According to the results of this study, clinical practitioners suggested that the most important virtue in personality education for nursing students is "sincere (4.72)". They also recognized the importance of personality education in order of "collaboration(4.58)", "responsibility (4.56)", "respect (4.50)", "consideration (4.42)" and "manners(4.40)".These results are somewhat different with those from previous studies among college students; In the previous study, college nursing students regarded items of personality education as important in order them (3.94), sincerity (3.89), responsibility (3.84), care (3.81), manners (3.72) ), Justice (3.57) and wisdom (3.57), compliance (3.56) and temperance (3.53) . In other words, while clinical nurses recognized that sincerity was the most important factor in personality education, college students regarded respect as the most important, and there was a difference in perception of college students' position and personality education virtues of field practitioners.
This result suggests that there is a difference between the perception of college students as a pre-service society and the recognition of clinical practitioners in the social field. Therefore, in order to achieve the effectiveness of personality education for nursing college students, it will be necessary to understand the perception of nursing college students and to narrow the gap to reflect the demands of the practical field.
Second, the level of personality development of nursing college students perceived by clinical practitioners was higher in order of "sincere (3.52)", "collaboration (3.48)", "responsibility (3.46)", "abstinence (3.46)", "consideration (3.45)", "respect (3.44)" and "compliance (3.44)". This result is also somewhat different from the previous study  that confirmed the level of personality development in nursing college students. In this study, nursing college students rated their personality development levels of etiquette (3.95), responsibility (3.95), respect (3.91), consideration (3.89), compliance (3.83)and collaboration (3.77) were above the mean (3.70), while filial piety(3.69), justice (3.51), wisdom (3.41), abstinence (3.35) and courage (3.34) were below the mean.
When comparedwith the developmental level of personality of nursing students evaluated by nursing students and clinical nurses using the same tool, followingsarefounded. First, the level of personality development of nursing students measured by clinical nurses was lower than that of nursing students.In other words, the personality level of nursing college students assessed objectively by clinical experts may be lower than the level of personality development they consider themselves. These results suggest that when nursing college students are put into clinical field after graduation, they may have difficulties and grievances because of their failure to meet the practical expectations. Therefore, it is necessary to make an effort to reflect this in the education of nursing college students through a detailed survey on the practical field expectations of nursing college students. Second, some of the personality items of nursing students showed that there was a clear difference between the nursing students and the clinical nurses about the developmental level. For example, "The rate of development of nursing students on etiquette was the ninth highest score in clinical experts, with 3.32, but the rating of nursing students was 3.95, which was the highest. In order to bridge this gap, it is necessary to examine the specific characteristics of the level and detail of the character virtues recognized by each group.
Third, based on the necessity of education of personality items recognized by nurse practitioners and the difference of development level of current students, the order of virtues in nurse college students' character education is "sincere (.96)", "responsibility (.88)", " collaboration (.88)", “respect (.85)”,"etiquette(.85)", "consideration (.78)", "wisdom (.78)",“justice (.75)”, “compliance(.72)”, “abstinence (.70)”, “courage (.67)” and“filial piety (.67)”. The results of the study for nursing college students are as follows: responsibility, respect, consideration, collaboration, etiquette, sincere, abstinence, filial piety, compliance, courage and justice . Also, the results of the previous studies analyzing the needs and rankings of personality education of general college students are as follows: sincere (.92), courage (.61), collaboration (.59), respect(.58), responsibility (.43), filial piety (.38), abstinence (.31), consideration (.31), justice (.29), wisdom (.27), compliance (.21) and etiquette (.13) .
Differences in the character education needs of general college students and nursing college students are related to the difference in recognition of the importance of personality education by college students in previous studies . In addition, characterization needs of clinical nurses and nursing college students were similar. This result is consistent with the previous research findings that university students' perception of personality education is more needed in education such as cooperation, respect, and consideration in education such as filial piety and etiquette .
Personality education of university students is needed more than anything else because they want differentiated human resources that combine personality in business and society . Character education is more important for nursing college students who must be professionals who should take care of human beings.
According to the results of this study, clinical practitioners suggested that the most important virtue in personality education for nursing students is "sincere". They also recognized the importance of personality education in order of "collaboration", "responsibility", "respect", "consideration" and "etiquette".
Second, the level of personality development of nursing college students perceived by clinical practitioners was higher in order of "sincerity", “collaboration", "responsibility" and “abstinence", "consideration", "respect" and "compliance". The virtues evaluated to nursing college students' developmental level below the average score appeared in the order of "filial piety", "wisdom", "justice" and "courage".
Third, based on the necessity of education of personality items recognized by nurse practitioners and the difference of development level of current students, the order of virtues in nurse college students' character education is "sincere", "responsibility" and " collaboration” "consideration", "wisdom", “justice”, “compliance”, “abstinence”, “courage” and “filial piet”.
Therefore, the personality education program for Korean nursing students needs to be based on the virtue of "sincerity". It is also necessary to emphasize the ability to cooperate with each other in teamwork with the group members and with the ability to do their best to fulfill their responsibilities. In addition, as a professional medical person, it is necessary to respect the target person, to keep the basic courtesy, and to have a personality element that is wise in handling the business and able to care for others. Nursing educators will need to incorporate elements of these personality education items into the curriculum and the comparative activities.
The author has declare no conflict of interest.
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